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© J R Stockton, >= 2005-02-24

J R Stockton's Merlyn Home Page.

Web-site founded Summer 1996.

This Site is Copyright; All Rights Reserved.

E-mail services are much affected by malware and spam. At least while this continues, and probably permanently, the simple old jrs@merlyn address will NOT work, and E-Mail to other addresses at Merlyn may also not be received. Addresses containing a $ character do not work. Other privately-notified addresses should work.

See, at the foot of this page, "Sending E-Mail to me".


Major topics : Astronomy and Astronautics, Batch Files in DOS, Computer Usage, Date and Time, Delphi, Internet, Javascript, Pascal, Scouting, and Year 2000; see below for index and details.

Within this Home Page
Copying Citation General Changes
Topics Index Site E-Mail
Framed Double Framed Less Framed Not Framed

© Copyright ©

No public copying of this site or of any of its text is permitted, electronically, on paper, or otherwise.

But computer code here is presented for execution by others, without formality.


Before citing any of these pages either in public print-on-paper or in Internet mass-media, please contact me to discuss bandwidth issues. Other linking is welcome without formality.


Much of this Web site was written for those who are already active or knowledgeable in the relevant field. I would be pleased to be E-mailed about any specific points of difficulty for other visitors.

Pages should be generally satisfactory at 640×480 pixels or better, medium font, though at least some of the tables will need scrolling at that resolution. Users of WebTV should upgrade to a proper computer.

This text is at the default size set by your browser; if it is not conveniently-sized, adjust your browser.

I'm not a skilful typist; so, if something doesn't make sense, consider replacing letters by ones nearby on a UK keyboard.

Please do not fetch this page, or any other pages or files of mine, by automated subscription; it wastes my limited resources.


Some links in this site point to elsewhere in the same page or to another page within this site; other links point to sites elsewhere. The presence of a link to a different site should be taken as a suggestion, rather than as an endorsement; sites can change their nature.

On this page, links within the page are italic, and links outside my site are bold; links to other pages on ny site are un-decorated.

As others have linked to my pages, an AltaVista or Google citation search will lead to many more-or-less related pages, of differing natures and qualities.

One probably cannot bookmark a framed page; No-Frame it first.

My Name

In order to reduce mistaken hits by simple-minded searchers (there is a person of my name from UT who seems to have been talented at the public competitive insertion of spherical objects into nominally wicker receptacles), I have largely removed my first name from these pages; it is a common anagram of "hJno".


Failed outgoing E-Mail               Sending E-Mail to me

Major Topics On This Site

Links Within This Page

Topic Index Sections
Acronyms Astronomy & Astronautics Batch in DOS .. Win98/ME
Computer Usage Date and Time Delphi
Directories Europe Internet
Javascript Miscellaneous Pascal
Scouting Sundries VBscript
Year 2000 ZIPped Pagesets

Other Sections
Merlyn This Web Site Sponsoring
Editing Testing Continuation

E-Mail sent by me

Sending E-Mail to me

Significant Recent Structural Alterations

2004-04-18 ff.   New Zeller material; family links
2004-04-28 Page js-logic.htm, uses of operators
2004-05-06 Page daycount.htm split from dayscale.htm
2004-08-01 In js-date?.htm, 3 2 1 renumbered 2 1 0
2004-08-01 Page js-date4.htm split into js-date3.htm & js-date4.htm
2004-12-03 Page astro3.htm split from astro.htm
2005-01-11 Page datecalc.htm split from datelinx.htm
2005-02-23 Pages astro.htm astro2.htm & astro3.htm
renamed to astron-1.htm astron-2.htm & astron-3.htm

ContinualMinor Changes

Pages within this Site

  The major sections are alphabetically ordered :-
  1. Acronyms - Mine, and links to wider lists
  2. Astronomy & Astronautics :-
    1. Astron 1 - Index, links, Q&A, errors
    2. Astron 2 - Various
    3. Astron 3 - Calculators
    4. Gravity 0 - Index, references, etc.
    5. Gravity 1 - Newton, Kepler
    6. Gravity 2 - Orbits, falling, misc
    7. Gravity 3 - Lagrange, Hill, Roche, horseshoes, rings, tides
  3. Batch in DOS .. Win98/ME :-
    1. DOS Batch Files
    2. DOS Batch Introduction
    3. DOS Batch Programs
  4. Computer Usage :-
    1. Internet
    2. General - includes Virus, UK Net Connection
    3. PC Information Links - very miscellaneous; Algorithm index (still small)
    4. Non-Pascal Languages
    5. ASCII/Hex Table
    6. Demon CDs - partial list, mostly magazine
    7. Directories :-
      1. A Zip-Files directory
      2. A Programs directory, with indexes in text and HTML modes
  5. Date and Time :-
    1. Date and Time Index and Links
    2. General Date and Time :-
      1. Date and Time Calculation - Warnings, Pascal/Delphi Routines
      2. Date Miscellany I : Calendars, Day Counts, Year 0
      3. Date Miscellany II : Day and Year, Month, Calendar Repeats, Possible Calendars
      4. Leap Years
      5. Calendar Weeks - including ISO 8601
      6. Zeller's Formulae (for Day-Of-Week and Easter);
        On the papers of : 1882, 1883, 1885, 1886, with images
      7. Annual Holiday Dates - British Isles, North America
      8. Easter and Related Dates - Moveable Feasts
      9. Hebrew Calendar
      10. Date and Time Formats - ISO 8601 & others
      11. Date and Time Scales - MJD, Julian, Gregorian Dates; Date/Time scale zeroes
      12. Date and Day Count - Conversions
      13. Time Miscellany : HMS, Time, Time Zones, TZ
      14. Leap Seconds, partly from NPL, UK
      15. Summer Time, partly from NPL, UK - plus UK/EU tables for ...1998-2029...
      16. Calendars and Clocks, with Form for conversions between CMJD and YYYY-MM-DD, YYYY-DDD, YYYY'-NN-D (YYYY'-NN is ISO 8601 Week Number), etc.; calendar sheet
    3. Critical and Significant Dates for the Year 2000, for computing, and generally; Repeated Risks, Critical Periods. Page may be withdrawn to ease overload - ZIP
    4. Tables :-
      1. A condensed Gregorian Calendar for 1970-2030
      2. A more condensed Gregorian Calendar for 1600-2800
      3. Set-Back : Year Match Tables for 1980-2030
      4. Year-Set : Year Type Tables for 1800-2250
      5. A condensed ISO-Week Calendar for 1970-2030
      6. Test Data for ISO Week Numbers
      7. A condensed UK IR Tax Week Calendar for 1970-2030
      8. Condensed Easter Tables for 1900-2149
      9. UK/EU Summer Time for ...1998-2029
      10. DayOfMonth/DayOfWeek Frequency Tables, Gregorian and Julian
      11. Some JDN, Gregorian, Julian, English Civil dates
      12. A condensed Hebrew Calendar for 5700-6000
    5. In Javascript - Date and Time - Index to 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, etc.; Calendars and Clocks
    6. In Pascal/Delphi - Date and Time, RTE 200
    7. In VBscript - Date and Time
    8. PC Sources and Executables directory (HTML & text indexes) including, among others :-
      1. MJD_DATE, a general DOS date/time program, using unit DATEPROX;
      2. LONGCALC, a vast-integer DOS RPN calculator program with some long-date code
      3. NOWMINUS, for date and time in Batch
    9. "Y2k" - The Year 2000 :-
      1. The Year 2000 problem, for a Beginner
      2. The Year 2000 problem, more generally : Part 1, Part 2, Part 3
      3. The Year 2001 problem, Year 2001, in Y2k Part 3
      4. The Year 2000 problem, "Time Dilation" in the PC
      5. The Year 2000 problem, References (including newsgroups)
      6. The Year 2000 problem, Testing and Programming
      7. UK Year 2000 Announcement of new newsgroup; draft for conversion to utc
      8. My Year 2000 Mini-FAQ for; Nano-FAQ
      9. My Year 2000 Songs
  6. Delphi :-
    1. Index, etc.;
    2. Programming;
    3. Bit/Byte-Shifting;
    4. On "Delphi for Time Travellers"
    5. Pascal Date and Time is relevant, too
    6. Pascal/Delphi Rounding and Truncation
    7. Pascal / Delphi / + Types (BP/TP; Delphi; FPC; TMT)
    8. ZIPped snapshots
    Where non-GUI and feasible, my programs are for both D3 "DCC32 -cc" and BP7.
    Much of the Pascal pages applies also to Delphi; in particular, types and random
  7. Directories :-
    1. Old FAQs
    2. Programs - mine, with indexes in text and HTML modes
    3. Graphics
    4. Pascal RTE 200 Files
    5. Zip-Files - a few utilities
    6. Pascal Games
  8. Europe :-
    1. General - the Continent, the EU, the euro currency
    2. Summer Time
  9. Failed Outgoing E-Mail - bad addresses, etc. : FailMail
  10. Internet :-
    1. General - includes UK Net Connection
    2. About E-Mail - personal views
    3. News :-
      1. About NewsGroups
      2. How to Write News - personal views
      3. Usenet Acronyms
    4. Web :-
      1. Reading and Writing Web Pages - personal views
      2. Writing Web Page, Content - personal views
      3. Writing Web Page, Tools - personal views
      4. HTML colours
    5. Links & Abuse :-
      1. Links : Demon and Turnpike, EMC, News, etc.
      2. Abuse, Copyright
    6. ZIPped snapshots
  11. Javascript :-
    1. Index, site introduction, news, links
    2. General
    3. Include Files - Usage, Contents
    4. Demos
    5. Quick Trials
    6. Maths - with numeric I/O
    7. Random - Usage; Shuffle, Deal, Draw
    8. Rounding
    9. RegExps & Validation
    10. Uses of Operators
    11. Date and Time - Index :-
    12. Calendars and Clocks
    13. Alarm
    14. Doubles Tournament
    15. Cartography
    16. Tests
    17. Links to pages using scripts
    18. ZIPped snapshots
  12. Miscellaneous Information :-
    1. Misuse of this Site
  13. Pascal - (Largely Borland/Turbo Pascal; Borland called itself Inprise for a while) :-
    1. The current Pascal Mini-FAQ for news:comp.lang.pascal.borland - now by Robert AH Prins; my oldpfaqs/ is a directory containing earlier versions and a TV FAQ
    2. My personal views :-
      1. General Pascal - and preferred route to the following pages. :-
      2. Pascal Links :-
        • 1 - Pascal & asm FAQ Links, Non-Borland Pascal Compilers, Turbo/Borland Pascal & TV(P) Bug Lists, Pascal Newsgroups
        • 2 - Borland, Bookmarks, Tutorials, Books, My Programs, Miscellaneous
      3. Borland/Turbo Pascal Procurement
      4. Borland/Turbo Pascal Normal Usage
      5. Borland/Turbo Pascal Extensions (with Crt unit avoidance)
      6. Pascal Mathematics (with Trigonometry)
      7. Pascal Floating-Point
      8. Pascal/Delphi Rounding and Truncation
      9. Pascal / DELPHI / + Types (BP/TP; Delphi; FPC; TMT)
      10. Reserved Words and Directives (BP/TP/D3)
      11. Pascal Optimisation - index, P1, P2; and Div+Mod (Michael Salem)
      12. Pascal Random function - with general considerations
      13. Pascal Date and Time
      14. Pascal Wait and Delay
      15. Date/Delay related material (Robert Rozee)
      16. BP7/TP7 Start-Up Runtime Error 200 (+500 MHz?)
      17. See also Delphi Index and TMT Pascal
    3. Directories :-
      1. Pascal RTE 200 Files, including copies of TP/BP upgrades/fixes, which may not remain Do not publish links to this directory or its contents; take a copy of the files instead
      2. "My PC Programs" - my *.PAS and some *.EXE (those with EXE also have ZIP) - with prime Text Index, secondary HTML Index, and Bugs files; and a little from other sources. Programs with *.EXE files are utilities; those with only *.PAS are examples, or are specifically for Borland/Turbo-Pascal or Borland Delphi programmers
    4. ZIPped snapshots
  14. Scouting :-
    1. General,
    2. Links, Construction
    3. News:rec.scouting.* Charters
  15. Sundries :-
    1. Humour
    2. Problems
    3. Quotations
    4. For Frames : Table of Contents, Micro-Index
    5. A very much earlier version of this Index, translated into French (probably bad French) by BabelFish - and back to "English" If you give BabelFish the URL of any page, you can follow this site in other languages, with tolerance (but it translates only the first 10 kilobytes of each page, apparently).
  16. VBscript :-
    1. General & Maths,
    2. Date & Time
  17. ZIPped Pageset Snapshots :-
    1. HTML/javascript web-authoring pages, (310kB+, taken >= 2004-11-30)
    2. Pascal/Delphi programming pages, (260kB+, taken >= 2004-11-30)
    3. Date/Time information pages, (500kB+, taken >= 2004-11-30)
    RSVP if I have left any files out of a ZIP. These snapshots are recent but generally not current; unZIP in an empty directory.

About This Site


Merlyn is my current Internet machine. It is now usually a PII/300 PC with Windows 98, MSIE 4, Turnpike 4, etc., etc. I also run what remains of old Merlyn, a Tandon PacII 486/33 PC with MSDOS 6.20, BP7, etc.

Merlyn connects to the Internet via Demon two or three times a day, usually, for E-mail and News; but rarely in BT prime time.

Please note that BT charges for connection time; so do not mail me large, useless, unexpected items. Do not Mail duplicates of News articles. Do not send duplicate E-mails; is a permanent redirecting address. True Net Abusers may get reported.

This Web Site

This Web site is hosted at Demon Internet Limited; thus access, unlike update, does not depend on my personal systems.

Pages may be cached, either at Demon or by your browser; reload as appropriate.

At present, except possibly by way of these links (which you are not invited to select), there are relatively few graphics and no sounds here; and frames are optional.

An external CSS file is used for pages with a coloured body background such as this one has. Otherwise, your defaults are assumed compatible with black-on-white.

The main font face and size that you see are the defaults set in your browser. I use MSIE 4, with default fonts Medium size, Times New Roman and Lucida Sans Typewriter.

The date at the top of each page should be the UK civil date of the last non-trivial change.

In pages with javascript, common functions are often hosted in include files; see js-nclds.htm.

Those who cannot read English may be helped by the Babel Fish translator.


My HTML pages, redirectors apart, should all have "Merlyn Home Page" near the top and "Surrey" near the bottom. Therefore, asking a search engine for pages containing both of those, plus topic-selecting words, should find any relevant Web pages of mine, without finding partial quotes. It may be necessary to repeat the search with omitted results included.


Anyone, acting corporately or privately, who finds information on this Web site useful enough to deserve recompense is invited to contribute support to the work of my Godson, his sisters, and his mother (see at Just Giving) for the Third World, directly or through local organisations.


These Web pages were originally developed largely with the HTML editor DiDa v1.72; nowadays I more often use the general editor PFE, and other tools such as MiniTrue. I have sometimes used HTML-Kit, a free HTML editing/viewing system, with integrated Tidy.


The HTML is regularly tested with Tidy (downloaded; from W3 or SourceForge); and local links and anchors are tested with cheklinx.

The pages are intermittently checked with Web validators such as those at, UK W3 HTML Validator, WebLint UK or WebLint org, and as far as I can are made to pass; and possibly with Bobby / Bobby, Cynthia and NetMechanic, and the worst faults removed; and maybe with WDG HTML Validator - Validate Me. Only validator sites compatible with MSIE 4 are used.


It has been suggested that some parts of this Web site may be useful. In the event of the unexpected demise of myself, my PC, my connection, or my ISP, these pages will either vanish or cease to change; I grant permission for the users of each set of these pages then to select one of their number to acquire, maintain, and update the set, provided that the head and foot of each page is suitably altered.

Sending E-Mail to me

DO NOT send me overquotes, bottom-quotes, or attachments;
or HTML / multipart / binary / WP / DOC formats,
or unreasonably large messages,
unless given explicit permission to do so.
Plain-Text Mail Formatting, Configuring MSOE Correctly for Plain-Text Mail.

E-Mail must have a suitable Subject line in plain ISO-7 characters,
and must be clearly disinguishable from spam.

Coursework Questions

E-Mail should be sent, in plain text, to either one, but not to both, of

 EMail addresses; use only one, preferably
 the reverse of uk dot co dot demon dot merlyn at web.
 Merlyn is spelt M E R L Y N.

The first is preferred.

The address with only my initials before the @ sign no longer works.

The address spam@... currently works, but may not be preserved.

** ** ** ALSO SEE ABOVE ** ** **

My normal address does not accept E-Mail from spam-dominated addresses or regions. Individuals mailing from spamming ISPs should change ISP; those in spamming areas such as 0086, 00886 and parts of 001 should use the first address below, but with the left part changed to that of the second address.

My normal address does not accept E-Mail using Big5 or GB2312.
Any E-Mail so marked is liable not to be read.

E-Mail sent by me

E-Mail and News from me is Dated when it is queued for output; my clock is not likely to be much in error. It is not uploaded until I connect to the Net; my ISP then adds its own time-stamps.

Outbound mail reported as undeliverable is sometimes referenced, with the given reason, in FailMail.

© Dr J R Stockton, Surrey, UK. All Rights Reserved.
(I am not a Medic, nor a Parliamentary Candidate)

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